Particulate air pollution over India and the ‘brown cloud’ associated with it

Research summary

The primary goal of this research project was to quantify how the amount, properties and influences of aerosol are changing over India at present and in the near future, and how these quantities would be affected by different emission control strategies.


• The project has facilitated aerosol-related research in India by a co-operating with a local high-level research organization, TERI. This has been achieved by establishing a state-of-the-art background aerosol measurement station providing 24/7 data on a long-term basis. In addition, global climate modelling has been used to investigate the future climate scenarios in India.
• An important objective was to promote knowledge transfer and scientific co-operation between Finnish and Indian scientists in the fields of air pollution and climate change. One person from TERI was trained for PhD within the project scope.
• The project has provided TERI crucial long-term scientific information in terms of linkages between air pollution and climate change.
• The expected results will be of valuable help in planning emission control strategies and legislation in order to achieve sustainable development in India and elsewhere in southern Asia.

Research info

Research title
Particulate air pollution over India and the ‘brown cloud’ associated with it

Research timeline
1.5.2004 - 1.12.2012

aerosols brown cloud climate change pollution


Finland, India

Finnish Meteorological Institute
Helsinki, Finland

Funding instrument
Ministry for Foreign Affairs (ICI, HEI-ICI, N-S-S), Business Finland

Head of research
Heikki Lihavainen

Research team
Heikki Lihavainen, Antti Hyvärinen, Timo Anttila

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India

Contact information
Antti Hyvärinen

Record last updated