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NANOSCIENCES, NANOTECHNOLOGIES, MATERIALS AND NEW PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES DEPLOYMENT IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
A thorough approach to nanotechnology and advance materials development must take into consideration the international dimension, in terms of R&D, access to information and regulation. International cooperation,including collaboration in research but not limited to this, is an integral part of the Commission’s policy in all areas of the Action Plan. However, despite the fact that international collaboration has been made so far; there is still a challenge of filling knowledge gaps with less industrially advanced nations in order to enhance quality of life and industrial competitiveness in those areas where Nanotechnology has the potential. European industrial players and research organizations seek new collaborative agreements in order to share risks and explore new market opportunities. On the other hand, Latin America has started new nanotechnology development programs in the last ten years. However, according to national agencies, the investment in nanotechnology R+D and the results achieved remains now relatively unpretentious.
Team
From VTT: Maria Lima Toivanen, Kaisu Loikkanen, Mona Arnold, Luiz Carlos Perez, Maria Mäntylä, Heidi Auvinen

Enhancing Education and Research in Networking and Communications Engineering

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The ENhHANCE project proposes enhancements for SECE-AAiT and CoICT-UDSM in engineering education, research capacity and industry outreach through collaborative activities with COMNET-Aalto. The COMNET-Aalto department is a long-established and leading unit for research and education in Finland in the area of networking and communications engineering, and plans to leverage that extensive knowledge and experience for the benefit of the partner HEIs (SECE-AAiT and CoICT-UDSM).
Team
Prof. Riku Jäntti (Aalto), Prof. Jyri Hämäläinen (Aalto), Dr. Edward Mutafungwa (Aalto), Beneyam Haile (Aalto), Dr. Dereje Hailemariam (AAiT), Dr. Eneyew Adugna (AAiT), Prof. Henry Kundaeli (CoICT-UDSM), Dr. Honest C. Kimaro (CoICT-UDSM)

Fabrication of (In)GaN nanopillar arrays for solar water splitting and hydrogen generation applications (GaNPEC)

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The production of hydrogen by solar energy is an attractive technique to realize global renewable energy supply. The photoinduced water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by the direct use of sunlight is an ideal, renewable method of hydrogen production that integrates solar energy collection and water electrolysis into a single photoelectrode. Although the concept is attractive to produce sustainable fuel, the suitable electrode material (performance, stability and low cost) is yet to be found.
Team
Nagarajan Subramaniyam (Finland), Markku Sopanen (Finland), Rajendra singh (India), Ashutosh Kumar (India)

Innovation of Transmission Technologies towards 5G Networks

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The widely-recognized essential features of the emerging 5G network compared with 4G networks include: 1000 times larger system capacity, 1/1000 power consumption, 10 Gbps peak rate and 1 ms end-to-end delay, while the innovation in transmission technologies is the basis in achieving this goal. The research carried out in this project can be divided into three areas: 1) New transmission architecture and protocol design for 5G networks 2) Green-transmission enabled 5G network technologies, 3) Advanced spectrum-sharing and smart transmission strategies in 5G networks. The proposed architectures, protocols, algorithms, techniques, and schemes are validated and evaluated through simulation platform and demonstration systems. Through this project, we expect to not only build theoretical foundations for 5G networks, but also to provide high-quality training opportunities for graduate students and engineers both in Finnish and Chinese Universities/Research Institutes.

Fundamentals of Ultra Dense 5G Networks with Application to Machine Type Communication 


Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Due the rapid increase in mobile and machine type data traffic the densities of networks are growing fast and deployment of local Ultra Dense Networks (UDNs) is seen as a viable solution in 5G framework. In this project we will consider the fundamental 5G challenges including 1) development of connectivity and control structures for high carrier frequency systems, 2) design of new low-latency, lowenergy 5G radio interface, 3) design of novel cooperative communication, beamforming and massive MIMO principles, 4) development of resource allocation principles for layered UDN deployment and 5) design principles enabling energy efficient UDN. We study these topics especially from indoor connectivity and machine type communication perspectives.
Team
Prof. Jyri Hämäläinen, Aalto University, Finland (Finnish team leader), Prof. Mikko Valkama, Tampere Univ. Technology (TUT), Finland, Prof. Markku Juntti, University of Oulu, Prof. Xiaofeng Tao, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Chinese team leader) , Prof. Lingyang Song, Peking University, Prof. Sihai Zhang, University of Science and Technology of China

Ecohydrology of tropical montane forests of the Andean Amazon

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Fresh water scarcity due to glacier retreat and decreasing precipitation related to global climate change will be one of the most serious environmental and social challenges in the Andean Amazonian region in this century. Rapidly increasing land use changes make water scarcity even more critical in dry season and, on the other hand, increase flooding and landslide risks in rainy season, because deforested areas have lost their natural water retention and storage capacity. A better understanding of natural water fluxes of forest ecosystems is needed to be able to solve the problems in water cycle.
Team
Johanna Toivonen, Sanna Huttunen, Tinja Pitkämäki, Carlos Gonzales Inca, Lassi Suominen

Dynamic study on 18F-FDG uptake after oral administration

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
PET imaging with 18F-FDG has been shown to be sensitive and cost-effective for evaluating cancer patients at various phases such as diagnosis, staging, and therapy assessment. Typically, 18F-FDG is administrated to patients intravenously. 18F-FDG venous injection is simple and useful in clinical routine, but venous access cannot be established in all patients, such as cancer patients with a history of extensive chemotherapy. The primary purpose of the project was to investigate the dynamic process of 18F-FDG distribution after oral administration in order to determine the optimal imaging acquisition time in human subjects. Furthermore, we are planning to investigate the absorption function of small intestine by measuring the dynamic parameter of FDG after oral administration.
Team
Kaixiu Zhang, Xuemei Wang

Evaluation of ammonia metabolism following carotid endarterectomy by PET imaging in human subjects

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Carotid artery plaques are a leading cause of ischemic stroke, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is one of the major treatment approaches for this disease. Changes in cerebral metabolism following CEA remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of cerebral ammonia metabolism following CEA using 13N labeled ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) in humans. This is clinical study in human subjects. This is an international collaboration project. Since Turku PET Centre has very strong PET research experiences, we provides the research protocols to China. Partners in China performed clinical investigations based on our protocols. Furthermore, we performed data analysis and manuscript writing.
Team
Tao Wang, Yulin He, Xia Bai, Xuemei Wang

Relationship of vascular adhension protein-1(VAP-1) and cardiovascular factors

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an adhesion molecule and involved in leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and transmigration from the blood into sites of inflammation, which is important for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. VAP-1 was found and identified in Turku by Prof. Sirpa Jalkanen. In this study, we planed to investigate the relationship soluble VAP-1(sVAP-1) in serum with cardiovascular factors based on Chinese population. This is an internation collaboration project. Finland provides technical supports and VAP-1 antibodies to China. Parters in China performed population study.
Team
Dawei Chen, Jianchang Wang, Sirpa Jalkanen, Anne Roivainen, Juhani Knuuti

Novel system for multi-organ quantitative tissue perfusion

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The purpose of research is to develop and validate a novel system for quantitative assessment of multi-organ tissue-perfusion using a dedicated cyclotron-produced, short-lived nuclei of 15O and PET for non-invasive human and small animal studies. This system is to overcome organ-specific problems. The goal is to establish a standard package for quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion, involving ICT-based multi-modality image processing techniques.
Team
(Board)Hidehiro Iida (iida@ri.vcvc.go.jp), Pirjo Nuutila, Mika Teräs, Nobuyuki Kudomi, (Main team members)Kazuhiro Koshino, Junichiro Enmi,Takashi Temma, Jarmo Teuho, Hannu Sipilä, Harri Merisaari, Marco Bucci, Kirsi Virtanen