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Fabrication of (In)GaN nanopillar arrays for solar water splitting and hydrogen generation applications (GaNPEC)

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The production of hydrogen by solar energy is an attractive technique to realize global renewable energy supply. The photoinduced water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by the direct use of sunlight is an ideal, renewable method of hydrogen production that integrates solar energy collection and water electrolysis into a single photoelectrode. Although the concept is attractive to produce sustainable fuel, the suitable electrode material (performance, stability and low cost) is yet to be found.
Team
Nagarajan Subramaniyam (Finland), Markku Sopanen (Finland), Rajendra singh (India), Ashutosh Kumar (India)

Innovation of Transmission Technologies towards 5G Networks

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The widely-recognized essential features of the emerging 5G network compared with 4G networks include: 1000 times larger system capacity, 1/1000 power consumption, 10 Gbps peak rate and 1 ms end-to-end delay, while the innovation in transmission technologies is the basis in achieving this goal. The research carried out in this project can be divided into three areas: 1) New transmission architecture and protocol design for 5G networks 2) Green-transmission enabled 5G network technologies, 3) Advanced spectrum-sharing and smart transmission strategies in 5G networks. The proposed architectures, protocols, algorithms, techniques, and schemes are validated and evaluated through simulation platform and demonstration systems. Through this project, we expect to not only build theoretical foundations for 5G networks, but also to provide high-quality training opportunities for graduate students and engineers both in Finnish and Chinese Universities/Research Institutes.

Fundamentals of Ultra Dense 5G Networks with Application to Machine Type Communication 


Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Due the rapid increase in mobile and machine type data traffic the densities of networks are growing fast and deployment of local Ultra Dense Networks (UDNs) is seen as a viable solution in 5G framework. In this project we will consider the fundamental 5G challenges including 1) development of connectivity and control structures for high carrier frequency systems, 2) design of new low-latency, lowenergy 5G radio interface, 3) design of novel cooperative communication, beamforming and massive MIMO principles, 4) development of resource allocation principles for layered UDN deployment and 5) design principles enabling energy efficient UDN. We study these topics especially from indoor connectivity and machine type communication perspectives.
Team
Prof. Jyri Hämäläinen, Aalto University, Finland (Finnish team leader), Prof. Mikko Valkama, Tampere Univ. Technology (TUT), Finland, Prof. Markku Juntti, University of Oulu, Prof. Xiaofeng Tao, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Chinese team leader) , Prof. Lingyang Song, Peking University, Prof. Sihai Zhang, University of Science and Technology of China

Ecohydrology of tropical montane forests of the Andean Amazon

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Fresh water scarcity due to glacier retreat and decreasing precipitation related to global climate change will be one of the most serious environmental and social challenges in the Andean Amazonian region in this century. Rapidly increasing land use changes make water scarcity even more critical in dry season and, on the other hand, increase flooding and landslide risks in rainy season, because deforested areas have lost their natural water retention and storage capacity. A better understanding of natural water fluxes of forest ecosystems is needed to be able to solve the problems in water cycle.
Team
Johanna Toivonen, Sanna Huttunen, Tinja Pitkämäki, Carlos Gonzales Inca, Lassi Suominen

Dynamic study on 18F-FDG uptake after oral administration

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
PET imaging with 18F-FDG has been shown to be sensitive and cost-effective for evaluating cancer patients at various phases such as diagnosis, staging, and therapy assessment. Typically, 18F-FDG is administrated to patients intravenously. 18F-FDG venous injection is simple and useful in clinical routine, but venous access cannot be established in all patients, such as cancer patients with a history of extensive chemotherapy. The primary purpose of the project was to investigate the dynamic process of 18F-FDG distribution after oral administration in order to determine the optimal imaging acquisition time in human subjects. Furthermore, we are planning to investigate the absorption function of small intestine by measuring the dynamic parameter of FDG after oral administration.
Team
Kaixiu Zhang, Xuemei Wang

Evaluation of ammonia metabolism following carotid endarterectomy by PET imaging in human subjects

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Carotid artery plaques are a leading cause of ischemic stroke, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is one of the major treatment approaches for this disease. Changes in cerebral metabolism following CEA remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of cerebral ammonia metabolism following CEA using 13N labeled ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) in humans. This is clinical study in human subjects. This is an international collaboration project. Since Turku PET Centre has very strong PET research experiences, we provides the research protocols to China. Partners in China performed clinical investigations based on our protocols. Furthermore, we performed data analysis and manuscript writing.
Team
Tao Wang, Yulin He, Xia Bai, Xuemei Wang

Relationship of vascular adhension protein-1(VAP-1) and cardiovascular factors

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an adhesion molecule and involved in leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and transmigration from the blood into sites of inflammation, which is important for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. VAP-1 was found and identified in Turku by Prof. Sirpa Jalkanen. In this study, we planed to investigate the relationship soluble VAP-1(sVAP-1) in serum with cardiovascular factors based on Chinese population. This is an internation collaboration project. Finland provides technical supports and VAP-1 antibodies to China. Parters in China performed population study.
Team
Dawei Chen, Jianchang Wang, Sirpa Jalkanen, Anne Roivainen, Juhani Knuuti

Novel system for multi-organ quantitative tissue perfusion

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
The purpose of research is to develop and validate a novel system for quantitative assessment of multi-organ tissue-perfusion using a dedicated cyclotron-produced, short-lived nuclei of 15O and PET for non-invasive human and small animal studies. This system is to overcome organ-specific problems. The goal is to establish a standard package for quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion, involving ICT-based multi-modality image processing techniques.
Team
(Board)Hidehiro Iida (iida@ri.vcvc.go.jp), Pirjo Nuutila, Mika Teräs, Nobuyuki Kudomi, (Main team members)Kazuhiro Koshino, Junichiro Enmi,Takashi Temma, Jarmo Teuho, Hannu Sipilä, Harri Merisaari, Marco Bucci, Kirsi Virtanen

A novel 18F-fluorine labeled tracer for imaging mitochondrial membrane potential based on fluorescent probe of JC-1

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
Mitochondria,as "energy factories", are responsible for creating more than 90% of the energy needed by the body to sustain life. Mitochondrial disease is a group of disorders cuased by dysfunctional mitochondria. About 1 in 4,000 children will develope this disease by the age of 10 years.Currently there is no specific method to detect this disorder clinically. This study is designated to develop a novel PET tracer for imaging mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which is a key inditor for moniting mitochondrial function.This is an international collaboration project with China: one researcher comes from China and part of project will be performed in China (synthesis of precursor).
Team
Xiaoqing Zhuang, Olof Solin;Merja Haapanranta-Solin, Tove Grönroos;Juhani Knuuti

Links-on-the-fly Technology for Robust, Efficient and Smart Communication in Unpredictable Environments (RESCUE)

Project date Head of research Language
Summary
As of the time 14:46, March 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan was hit by a massive earthquake. The epicentre of the earthquake was located to be undersea off the coast of Japan, and the magnitude-level was 9.0. The first earthquake also triggered a series of subsequent big earthquakes. Altogether, these earthquakes caused huge trembling on the Japanese mainland, reaching magnitude-level 7 at Kurihara City in the Miyagi prefecture, and Level 6 across many places in Tohoku. Following these huge earthquakes, those areas facing to the Pacific Ocean over the entire Tohoku area and also a northern part of Kanto areas were hit by unpredictably huge Tsunami waves of up to 40 m height. While travelling up 10 km inland, these waves caused thousands of deaths and severe damage of private and public infrastructure.
Team
Tadashi Matsumoto